`Read Pdf é The Word, the Blade, and the Pen: Three Thousand Years of Arabic · eBook or Kindle ePUB free

`Read Pdf ⛄ The Word, the Blade, and the Pen: Three Thousand Years of Arabic ½ Arabic s history spans nearly three thousand years The language first appears as a shadowy idiom in the early st millennium BCE, sporadically attested in ancient rock inscriptions from the southern Levant and North Arabia and fragments in the documents of major empires In Classical Antiquity, Arabic flourishes as a written language among the nomads of North Arabia and the Syro Jordanian desert, and by mid first millennium CE, it had become the language of world empires and international scientific discourse Ahmad Al Jallad plots out the complex evolution of the world s fifth most widely spoken language For the first time, Arabic s entire history will be told, with a special focus on the primary sources and their socio cultural contexts The evolution of both the language and its associated writing traditions are discussed in light of linguistic, historical, and archaeological research, and presented as a coherent narrative The book is divided into three partsthe Word Arabic s earliest stages when it remained a purely spoken language Evidence for it is preserved in transcriptions of loanwords, personal names, and other fragments in the written languages of the timethe Blade this refers to the instrument used to carve rock inscriptions, usually a sharp stone or metal blade Arabic is abundantly attested in rock inscriptions from the late first millennium BCE onwardthe Pen in the early first millennium CE, Arabic is written and frequently in the Nabataean script and in ink This catalyzes the evolution of the Arabic script as we know it and ultimately the transformation of Arabic into a world languageMore info