~DOWNLOAD ♬ The Anatomy of Dependence ♷ PDF or E-pub free

~DOWNLOAD ⚇ The Anatomy of Dependence ♟ A classic study of the Japanese psyche, a starting point for a true understanding Japanese behaviorThe discovery that a major concept of human feeling easily expressed in everyday Japanese totally resisted translation into a Western language led Dr Takeo Doi to explore and define an area of the psyche which has previously received little attention The resulting essay, The Anatomy of Dependence, is one of the most penetrating analyses of the Japanese mind ever written, as well as an important original contribution to psychology which transcends the boundaries of cultures and nationsPublished in Japan as Amae no Kozo The Structure of Amae , Dr Doi s work is focused upon the word amae indulgence and its related vocabulary Expressive of an emotion central to the Japanese experience, amae refers to the indulging, passive love which surrounds and supports the individual in a group, whether family, neighborhood, or the world at large Considering the lack of such words in Western languages, Dr Doi suggests inherent differences between the two cultures contrasting the ideal of self reliance with those of interdependence and the indulgence of weaknesses Yet, he finds that Western audiences have no difficulty in recognizing and identifying with the emotions he describes, and are even searching for a way to express this needWhile there is no doubt that the concept of amae is developed in Japan and the feelings it engenders profound, Dr Doi s work is widely recognized as having a universal application This translation of his most important essay has now been long welcomed as a major contribution not only as an insight into the Japanese mind, but into the minds of men everywhere This book is unique because it has aAsian centered POV Every other one I ve picked up immediately smells of something else At the same time, it also takes the West into account I don t think I would have found a foothold in it otherwise It s just that it s not written exclusively for the West he retains a respect for his native culture and hasn t abandoned the truth for the sake of beingpalatable to the American reader.Although the translator says in the introduction that it s w This book is unique because it has aAsian centered POV Every other one I ve picked up immediately smells of something else At the same time, it also takes the West into account I don t think I would have found a foothold in it otherwise It s just that it s not written exclusively for the West he retains a respect for his native culture and hasn t abandoned the truth for the sake of beingpalatable to the American reader.Although the translator says in the introduction that it s written for the Japanese audience, it s ideal for a bicultural or someone struggling to reconcile the two cultures It would be most rewarding for someone who already has some sense of the numerous words defined in this book It is basically a list of terms in Japanese and what they mean It needs an index Ruth Benedict analyzed Japan through the lens of giri ninjo Chie Nakane highlighted vertical relationships For Takeo Doi, the foundation of Japanese society is Amae Perhaps the trickiest cipher I ve encountered in my Nihonjinron studies yet, Amae is one of those culturally specific words that has so many meanings it almost circles back around to meaninglessness There is a similarity in Japanese to German in its tendency to capture very precise ideas or feelings in a single albeit long Ruth Benedict analyzed Japan through the lens of giri ninjo Chie Nakane highlighted vertical relationships For Takeo Doi, the foundation of Japanese society is Amae Perhaps the trickiest cipher I ve encountered in my Nihonjinron studies yet, Amae is one of those culturally specific words that has so many meanings it almost circles back around to meaninglessness There is a similarity in Japanese to German in its tendency to capture very precise ideas or feelings in a single albeit long word Ironically, the idea behind doing so was as a shortcut all language is just audible shorthand or code shared between people who speak it But if you don t, the opposite can occur confusion and puzzlement.So what is Amae The dictionary definition is derived from the Japanese verb amaeru, which means something like to rely on The connotation involves a child like attitude, the indulgent and sometimes bratty behavior a kid might display only with a doting parent This might seem like an odd starting point for explaining the behavior of millions of people, but Doi lays out a fairly compelling case As a Japanese psychologist, Doi s input here is also valuable since the previous two authors I mentioned were not professionals in this field Both Benedict and Nakane worked in anthropology Doi read their works and recognized their insights But something, some key idea or feeling, was missing As a psychologist who directly observed and spoke with Japanese patients who were struggling with various internal issues, he realized many of them had something in common a frustration or inhibition of Amae Like the concept of Love, or Acceptance in the West, he determined that Amae is a critical emotional and spiritual need that Japanese people crave whether they know it or not.So do all Japanese exhibit some childish need to be spoiled It s not quite that simple First of all, Amae is simply a word the Japanese have for something all humans want, according to Doi The fact that they have a specific word for it merely reflects their different cultural attitudes and focus, not the existence of the concept itself That concept is deeply rooted in an almost subconscious desire to be united with others, and a dislike of separation something that happens shortly after we are born Separation anxiety isn t exactly the same, but it can be helpful in getting at his point Different cultures deal with this need to Amae in different ways In Japan, one noted example was the Emperor system the elevation of the Emperor during the Meiji era to a national, patriarchal figurehead Historians have noted that this idea was actually rather new to the Japanese political consciousness, since the Emperor prior to this was largely unimportant to the average Japanese citizen, who waslikely to feel allegiance to their local lord Doi documents the process by which this shift in loyalty was accomplished by the architects of the Restoration, who realized that the only way to create a sense of Japanese national pride was by centering it around a symbol in this case the person of the Emperor himself Doing so required an understanding of the Japanese sense of Amae the need to feel an emotional connection or reliance on someone In the West, this sense of public spirit is still there, but due to Western emphasis on individuality, tends to center on things, not people Take the American attitude toward the flag, for example In many ways the sensitivity and outrage provoked by disrespecting the flag is comparable to the attitude of pre war Japanese toward the Emperor This is because many Americans feel a connection to the flag that is deeper than just politics or nationality It represents something beyond those external concepts, moving into something very internal, about the Self I am an American, the flag is America, the Flag is Myself As you can see, Doi s research gets into some deep territory His discussion ranges into language, spirituality, politics, psychology, even sexuality He connects everything back to Amae It must be noted that some of these fields are well outside his training as a psychologist, and he does admit that Nevertheless, his thesis carries a strangely compelling bent, since its root is something very mystical and which has been a topic of discussion by various mystics and philosophers for quite some time The initial separation of the Self and Other is something that has defined humanity probably since Humanity became a thing, and as Huxley noted, the concept of two was the beginning of a great many evils We ve been trying to repair the damage for a long time, and in the process have created kingdoms, nations, religions, societies Japan recreated itself, and the Emperor system a system which eventually fell.Which leads to another point Now that the Emperor is just a symbolic, powerless figurehead akin to the British monarch, how has this affected Japanese ideas of Amae and public spirit Doi argues that because this older system was abolished and nothing ever took its place that sustains that Amae need, Japan has struggled to adapt to modern times Democracy in the Western mold does not take Amae into account, with its intense focus on individual autonomy and freedom His prognosis for Japan s social and political future is both profound and somewhat soberingThe aim from now on, surely, must be to overcome amae Nor will it do simply to return to the Zen world of identity between subject and object rather, it will be necessary to transcend amae by discovering the subject and object to discover, in other words, the other person Amae is a Japanese term used to describe behavior and emotion that is often translated as indulgence and is related to acting as a spoiled child The concept of amae received international attention after a publication by a Japanese psychoanalyst, Takeo Doi in 1971 There is perhaps no equivalent term in the English language however, amae situations may exist in countries outside of Japan with or without a label Niiya et al., 2006 The reception of amae actions varies based on the context Amae is a Japanese term used to describe behavior and emotion that is often translated as indulgence and is related to acting as a spoiled child The concept of amae received international attention after a publication by a Japanese psychoanalyst, Takeo Doi in 1971 There is perhaps no equivalent term in the English language however, amae situations may exist in countries outside of Japan with or without a label Niiya et al., 2006 The reception of amae actions varies based on the context of usage source Takeo Doi was the first to bring attention to the concept of amae InThe Anatomy of Dependence , Doi places a heavy amount of focus on the Japanese words that contribute to this concept Unfortunately, little is done to tie togetheramaeand the vocabulary he presents If lucky, there may be a paragraph that wraps up his sources with analysis.I was also bothered by the amount of poorly backed generalizations of both Japanese and Western societies It s a short read to get one s feet wet with the concept, but I would not considerThe Anatomy of Dependenceas a great source With societal changes since the 70 s, of which Doi mentions, I would be wary of how much his book upholds One of my favorite words pg 58 Hohitsu I want someone who would leave me to take responsibility to all outward appearances but in fact would give me advice and recognition Hohitsu can only be translated as assist but implies shouldering all responsibilities while conceding all apparent authority.There are so many men and managers who want women and staff to hohitsu them You do all the work and take all the responsibility but cede all the recognition and credit to them The Help comes to One of my favorite words pg 58 Hohitsu I want someone who would leave me to take responsibility to all outward appearances but in fact would give me advice and recognition Hohitsu can only be translated as assist but implies shouldering all responsibilities while conceding all apparent authority.There are so many men and managers who want women and staff to hohitsu them You do all the work and take all the responsibility but cede all the recognition and credit to them The Help comes to mind I m not a psychologist, there are many many insights I m not capable of teasing out of Dr Doi s work The book that got me into Takeo Doi, and by extension cross cultural takes on clinical psychology Doi explores the Japanese principle of amae, something universal to all human culture and experience, but only given an explicit name in Japanese language Amae is related to intimate relationships we form with others, and how those relationships shape our behavior, andso our total psyches Doi draws on his own experiences in foreign cultures to define and explain what exactly is meant by the The book that got me into Takeo Doi, and by extension cross cultural takes on clinical psychology Doi explores the Japanese principle of amae, something universal to all human culture and experience, but only given an explicit name in Japanese language Amae is related to intimate relationships we form with others, and how those relationships shape our behavior, andso our total psyches Doi draws on his own experiences in foreign cultures to define and explain what exactly is meant by the concept in order to use it as one of the fundamentals of a new kind of psychology and from there, a psychotherapy A must read for those interested in sociocultural psychology, especially cross cultural psychotherapy This classic work on the psychology of Japanese offers amazing insights to the interpersonal world of Japan While some readers might feel impatient with the psychoanalytic approach here, the observations and careful connections the author makes are very much on target Having lived in Tokyo for 15 years, and in China for three, the opening up of the so called inscrutable mind of Japan shows that they are both unique and people just like everyone else in the world That balance of uniqueness and This classic work on the psychology of Japanese offers amazing insights to the interpersonal world of Japan While some readers might feel impatient with the psychoanalytic approach here, the observations and careful connections the author makes are very much on target Having lived in Tokyo for 15 years, and in China for three, the opening up of the so called inscrutable mind of Japan shows that they are both unique and people just like everyone else in the world That balance of uniqueness and ordinariness is only part of what makes this book a helpful way of understanding one culture and the differences between cultures A must read about Japan The book explores an interesting theory the term of amae and its impact upon the Japanese individual and social psyche but in my opinion, the arguments are rather poor and undeveloped It made me think of the saying when all you have is a hammer, everything around you seems like nails. Doi starts out by making a linguistic relativity hypothesis based observation that any word that exists in one language but cannot be expressed easily in others, refers to a phenomena which is culturally important in culture of the first language, but not so important in the culture of the others which lack a means of its expression Quoting linguist Benjamin Whorf Every language is a vast pattern system, different from others, in which are culturally ordained the forms and categories by which t Doi starts out by making a linguistic relativity hypothesis based observation that any word that exists in one language but cannot be expressed easily in others, refers to a phenomena which is culturally important in culture of the first language, but not so important in the culture of the others which lack a means of its expression Quoting linguist Benjamin Whorf Every language is a vast pattern system, different from others, in which are culturally ordained the forms and categories by which the personality not only communicates, but also analyzes nature, notices or neglects types of relationship and phenomena, channels his reasoning, and builds the house of his consciousness.Amaeru, according to him, is a word that cannot be directly translated into English It means the need or desire to be loved It denotes dependency needs Another word is Sumimasen or sumanai, which is according to him, a strange term as it encapsulates both gratitude and apology The derivation of sumimasen is to finish, to end, to be completed In other words, the matter disputed is not ended because one has not done everything one should have done Thus it expresses a strong feeling of need to apologize for the other person.The Japanese perspective on freedom comes in the word jiyuu When the Japanese needed a word for the Western concept this is the one they choose Traditionally, Doi argues, this word has meant freedom in the sense of free to amaeru It s usage was within the context of the group In the Western sense, freedom has served as the basis for asserting individuality In Japan, little value is attributed to the individual s private realm as distinct from the group as a result you find the ambiguity and hesitation of self expression is a common trait in the Japanese people The reasons for a whole number of Japanese traits, mostly in terms of group harmony or a lack of individualism revolve around either a rice agriculture being important in Japanese history or b Japan s geography forcing people to live close together Doi describes how the post war removal of ideological restrictions The introduction of American Western concepts of freedom didn t directly serve the cause of individualism, but by destroying the traditional channels of amae had contributed, if anything, to the spiritual and social confusion Some thinkers such as Sartre, have held onto the idea of human freedom as the only absolute in the face of a superstructure in the process of collapse He replies Yet where does this type of freedom lead Ultimately, it can only mean if not the simple gratification of individual desires solidarity with others through participation, in which the Western idea of freedom becomes ultimately something not so different from the Japanese 3.5 but I m rounding up because of the food for thought it provides.Things I like Doi offers a fascinating examination of the linguistic and social permutations of the amae psychology Especially well thought out is the chapter on The World of Amae and the ways in which such a mentality informs myriad aspects of Japanese society The explanations of, and situations within amae, of terms such as and which proved incredibly enlightening to myself as a resident, and will no doubt 3.5 but I m rounding up because of the food for thought it provides.Things I like Doi offers a fascinating examination of the linguistic and social permutations of the amae psychology Especially well thought out is the chapter on The World of Amae and the ways in which such a mentality informs myriad aspects of Japanese society The explanations of, and situations within amae, of terms such as and which proved incredibly enlightening to myself as a resident, and will no doubt prove well developed even for a reader unfamiliar with such terms as andThings I find problematic Doi neglects to define his term Japanese Despite claims of a closed culture, multiculturalism is not a new phenomenon in Japan and the fact remains that citizenship is not granted to 3rd, 4th, or even 5th generation immigrants who cannot prove Japanese blood How long does one have to live immersed in the culture to be effected by this cultural psychology What does it mean to Doi to be Japanese For someone writing in the 70s, and someone familiar with the sociological limits of psychoanalysis, he is startlingly uncritical of Freudian theory In fact, I am willing to posit that he is unconsciously ing to his Oedipal father figure inways than one Most prevalent is his utter disregard for the tones of misogyny rebounding around the pages of this little volume He has no problem cutting and pasting ad nauseum Freud s views don t forget Nietzsche s and St Paul s on the masculine vs the feminine, and using his phrases to expound what Doi is marketing as a universal Japanese psychology There is a gaping hole in his theory that is the exact shape of Japanese socialized gendered behaviour, and frankly I m a bit surprised it passed the second draft Other issues involve his claim to eschew value judgments, while simultaneously subscribing to a Freudian analytic that insists infantile passive object love is pathological regression and cries out to be remedied Oh, and the persistent idea that the modern day mind is part of some sort of cutting edge avant guard, facing new and exciting problems at the heights of achievement and humanity, and that the past was some sort of magical Golden Age a land of peace and harmony where everything was simple and uncomplicated by today s issues Finally his stretching of his concept of amae to explain and predict the student uprisings and the youthful rebellion of the 60s and early 70s seems a bit self indulgent but it s an exciting new idea can t I apply it to everything in order to self congratulate someand certainly doesn t stand the test of time.So in conclusion, it s problematic and dated, but in no way should that get in the way of a critical and engaging exploration of the Japanese psychology